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Women’s- and Gender history of National Socialism, which has developed into a differentiated field of research in the last four decades, has clearly shown that Gender is highly relevant to the analysis of National Socialist ideology and politics in many respects. This applies to gendered hierarchies of the political public, to gendered strategies of the war economy, as well as to the racial politics of reproduction that affected women’s lives in unequivocal ways. Gender is also extremely relevant to analysing specific forms of participation of men and women in crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide. When, however, gender policies of the National Socialist regime are addressed in a broader public phantasmatic images that identify submission with femality are widespread and in popular TV documentaries voyeuristic perspectives on the wives and mistresses of Nazi leaders often figure rather prominently. Among other things, this course will contrast such popular perceptions with a reflexive approach to the wide range of scholarly literature on the gender history of the National Socialism. It will also address gender as a category for the analysis of National Socialism which cannot be discussed without regard to the category of race—to which it is subordinated in National Socialist ideology and politics. The course will reflect the vibrant and controversial field of research from its beginnings in the 1970s up to the present, and thereby combine the approaches of social and gender history, discourse analysis and the history of memory.

    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Johanna Gehmacher

Because the Cold War was a series of ideological battles for the “hearts and minds of mankind,” culture became a weapon. This seminar examines the United States’ export of its ideals to counter communism abroad. Although the course focuses on American-led projects, soft power, and psychological warfare, the reach was global and thus offers the opportunity to examine nations world-wide. The class opens with an examination of American political power from the 19th-century’s claims about the frontier through the American Century and Cold War conceptions of “truth,” “propaganda, " and "informational" practices. The intersection of American governmental branches and clandestine operations with international private foundations, the press, advertising agencies, universities, corporations, and private individuals unpack the complexity of export operations. The course continues to explore cultural diplomacy through radio, music, modernist art, dance, literature, books, magazines, film, television, architecture, and sports.  It examines the power of race, gender, and religion. The concept of soft power is challenged by its intersection with military operations, hot wars, or the threat of nuclear attacks in case studies of Korea, Berlin, Cuba, and Vietnam. Cultural exports are examined in the context of secondary source readings and primary sources including conventional archival documents as well as examples of art, film, and performances.

    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Victoria Phillips
This course will consider how environmental ideas and practices have shaped relations between nation-states and the wider world throughout history. It will consider how industrialized nations, especially the United States, thought about nature and impacted ecosystems at home and abroad in the modern era. We will engage an array of topics of relevance to international history, including colonialism, imperialism, war, modernization, development, multilateral institutions, and nongovernmental organizations and examine a growing array of scholarship in U.S. Environmental History, International History, Globalization Studies, Political Economy, and Postcolonial Studies that have brought the environment from the background to the center of their analyses. Students will be prepared to analyse historical debates over how humans, corporations, and governments have interacted with nonhuman nature on a global scale, and how nonhuman nature shaped interactions over time. Along the way, we will ask, how did officials and decision-makers try to define and manage a borderless nature? How might an environmental lens help us to better understand historical relationships between nations?

    Teacher: Picture of Megan BlackPicture of Marsha Fu

This course explores themes in the history of slavery and freedom in Britain and the British world from 1600 to 1900. In the liberal tradition, slavery and freedom are framed as theoretical and rhetorical opposites. In practice, the lines between slavery and freedom were blurry and ambiguous. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, sugar grown and processed in the British colonies of the Caribbean by enslaved African workers was a cornerstone of the imperial economy. Britain’s North American colonies were caught in the economic and political orbit of the sugar islands. At the end of the eighteenth century, the American, French and Haitian Revolutions transformed, but did not end, the political economy of slavery in the British world. In 1807, Britain abolished its slave trade. In 1834, slavery was abolished in the British empire. Abolition did not, however, end Britain’s close association with slavery. Cotton produced by enslaved people in the American South provided Britain with crucial raw material during the industrial revolution. British investments kept the empire imbricated in the global trade in enslaved people and the commodities their labour produced. And yet, even as the British empire became entrenched in the nineteenth-century world of slavery, British nineteenth-century reformers placed ever greater faith in liberal ideas of freedom, bureaucratic transparency, free labour, and free markets. This course offers an opportunity to examine the place of slavery and emancipation in the history of the British world, and the ambiguities and paradoxes of a liberal empire built on the backs of enslaved people.

    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Padraic Scanlan

This course delves into all of these issues and presents an overview of Caribbean political, economic, social and cultural history from the height of transatlantic slavery to the postcolonial era in the 1980s. It especially focuses on the three central themes of American and European colonialism, race and revolution and takes an expansive view of the Anglophone, Francophone, Hispanic and Dutch Caribbean. Wherever possible, comparisons and contrasts with the Caribbean the United States and Latin America are drawn upon.

    Teacher: Picture of Grace CarringtonPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Imaobong Umoren
This course explores the history of Britain in the Atlantic world during the ‘long eighteenth century,’ from the Glorious Revolution in 1688 to the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. It is impossible fully to understand the profound transformations in British political, economic and cultural life in this period without an understanding of Britain’s growing presence in the Atlantic, in both its restive colonial empire and in the wider Atlantic political economy. The course focuses on three important forces that shaped Britain’s presence in the Atlantic world: the intermittent, nearly century-long war with France, the rapid expansion of British settler colonies and concomitant rise of American republicanism, and the expansion and entrenchment of slave labour in plantation societies in South America, the Caribbean, and southern North America. As Britain empire expanded into the Americas, domestic British society was transformed: By Enlightenment innovations in science and political organisation, by transformations in social life and gender politics, and by rebellions in Scotland and Ireland that led to the consolidation of Great Britain as a single political unit. This course explores the many connections between the expanding British colonial empire and the increasingly confident and sophisticated British state, and frames theses connections in the crucible of a dynamic and often violent Atlantic world.
    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Padraic Scanlan

HY113 provides an introductory survey of events outside Europe in the twentieth century, with a particular emphasis on the collapse of the Western colonial empires, the development of relations between the West and new states within Asia, Africa and the Middle East, the struggle between left and right in Latin America, and the rise of non-Western models of political development. It begins with the state of the European empires in the first half of the century; Indian, and Algerian independence; post-independence Africa and the rise and fall of apartheid; the rise of the non-aligned movement; North-South debates and the debt crisis of the 1980s; the path from independence to revolution in Cuba; the Japanese challenge to the West; the Chinese revolution; China under Mao and Deng; the Japanese developmental state; the development of the modern Middle East; and the Iranian revolution.

    Teacher: Picture of Sara AlqaiwaniPicture of Roham AlvandiPicture of Sarah Ashraf2Picture of Nigel AshtonPicture of Antony BestPicture of Anna CantPicture of Grace CarringtonPicture of Rosalind CoffeyPicture of Stavros-Errikos DiamantopoulosPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Giovanni GragliaPicture of Anton HarderPicture of Tanya HarmerPicture of Jack HoganPicture of ANNE IRFANPicture of Joanna LewiskwakwakwakwakwaPicture of Pete MillwoodPicture of Federico PachettiPicture of Svetozar RAJAKPicture of Taylor C. ShermanPicture of Ian StewartPicture of Daniel StrieffPicture of Imaobong UmorenPicture of Boyd Van Dijk

HY116 is about the history of international relations since the 1890s. The course emphasises the changing character of international politics during the period, and focuses on key themes and events.

    Teacher: Picture of Roham AlvandiPicture of Nigel AshtonPicture of Antony BestPicture of David BroderPicture of Steven CaseyPicture of PEDRO CORREA MARTIN-ARROYOPicture of Marvin FriedPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Giovanni GragliaPicture of Matthew JonesPicture of Natalia KibitaPicture of William KingPicture of Nicholas LudlowPicture of Konstantina MaragkouPicture of Andrea MasonPicture of Corina MavrodinPicture of HAMISH MCDOUGALLPicture of Christian MelbyPicture of Pete MillwoodPicture of Sophia MoeschPicture of David MotadelDr. Paul MulveyPicture of Christopher ParkesPicture of Marina Perez De ArcosPicture of Artemis PhotiadouPicture of Svetozar RAJAKPicture of David StevensonPicture of Imaobong UmorenPicture of Vladislav Zubok

This course provides an introduction to the international history of the early modern period by examining the complex political, religious, military and economic relationships between Europe and the wider world. The period between 1500 and 1800 enables the course to introduce students to a crucial period in international history. In political terms, it covers the rise of major dynastic states, with increasingly centralized institutions and concepts such as absolutism to promote the authority of the monarch, as well as the challenges to that authority and growing interest in political and social reform, culminating in the revolutions examined at the end of the course. Internationally, the period witnessed the gradual consolidation of leading European powers, as reflected in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), with formerly peripheral states emerging to challenge their position by the early eighteenth century. At the same time, the rise of major Islamic empires in Eurasia and the growing contact between Europe and the wider world provide students with important points of comparison between European and non-European states. The intellectual, religious and cultural developments of this period provide a constant context for these major political events.

    Teacher: Picture of Philip AbrahamPicture of Marc BaerPicture of Stefan Bauer1Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Timothy HochstrasserPicture of Eleanor JanegaPicture of Paul KeenanPicture of Jeppe MulichPicture of Tim RidingPicture of Max SkjonsbergPicture of Gagan D. S. SoodPicture of Ian StewartPicture of Paul Stock
This course takes history students through the process of writing a first draft of an essay for Hy113, Hy116 or Hy118. To this end, it offers hands-on tutorials in each of the skills required: reading well and taking good notes; asking good questions of sources, classmates and teachers; turning notes into essays; developing persuasive arguments in essays; identifying and using historiography; writing well; revision; improvement, and time management. Assignments will directly feed into the work you are doing for at least one other History course.

    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Natalia KibitaPicture of Taylor C. ShermanPicture of Daniel Strieff

Human Rights are often assumed to have a precise twentieth-century origin in the 1948 Universal Declaration or in the succeeding decades of increasing activism. However, the history of human rights discourse and its practical impact emerged as only the latest stage of a sequence of intellectual debates and real-life struggles in specific historical settings over political, religious, economic rights, broadly defined. This course seeks to explore an (inevitably selective) range of these historical contexts in order to demonstrate the continuity of perennial themes of conflict between the claims of individual actors and corporate institutions, whether states, churches, empires or other institutions, while also showing how and when key changes take place in the recognition of rights of political action, conscience, property ownership, gender identity and workers’ rights etc. In each session a contrasted selection of contemporary writings is studied to recover the intellectual framework of the discussion and the role of the dispositive political, social, and economic circumstances of the debate are also considered.

    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Timothy Hochstrasser
Although the Cold War dominated the second half of the 20th century, until recently we had only an imperfect sense of what it was all about. Historians wrote about it either from within the events they were trying to describe or by accessing mostly Western archives. Cold War history, hence, was not normal history: it was both asymmetrical and incomplete. The end of the Cold War and the subsequent partial opening of Soviet, Eastern European, and Chinese archives have methodologically revolutionised the field. Everything we though we knew can now be revisited and reconsidered in light of the new documents available to us. This course will provide an introduction to key topics in the new, international history of the Cold War, centring on the period between the end of World War II and the revolutions of 1989. Each of the topics selected deal with key aspects of the global conflict, but the aim of the course is to focus on essential issues rather than to be comprehensive and all-inclusive.

    Teacher: Picture of SEBASTIAAN BOUWMANPicture of John CollinsPicture of Tom EllisPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Natalia KibitaPicture of William KingPicture of Nicholas LudlowPicture of Corina MavrodinPicture of Svetozar RAJAK

This course deals with the Russian Empire during its 'long eighteenth century' – in other words, from the accession of Peter I (also known as 'the Great') in 1682 to the death of Alexander I in 1825. The following topics are covered: Russia in 1682; the impact of the reign of Peter I on the internal development and international position of Russia; the social and political developments of the period 1725-1762; popular revolt during the eighteenth century; the domestic and foreign policies of Catherine II; the impact of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution on Russia; Russia and the Napoleonic Wars; the failure of constitutional and social reform in the first quarter of the nineteenth century; the Decembrist Revolt of 1825; the policies towards non-Russians within the Russian empire.

    Teacher: Picture of Charles BeacroftPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Janet HartleyPicture of Jennifer KeatingPicture of Paul Keenan

HY226 focuses on the international and comparative history of the First World War. The military, diplomatic, political, economic, social, and cultural aspects of the conflict will all receive attention. The origins and outbreak of the war; the military campaigning on the Western, Eastern, Italian, and extra-European Fronts; the war at sea and in the air; the intervention of neutral powers, war aims and attempts to negotiate peace; domestic politics in the belligerents; the war's economic and social effects; the experience of combat; the Russian Revolution and the road to the Armistice; the impact of the war on the international system and on individual and collective consciousness.

    Teacher: Picture of Marvin FriedPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Heather JonesPicture of Macgregor KnoxDr. Paul MulveyPicture of David Stevenson

HY232 aims to explain the history of these regions as expressed and moulded by the peoples and their leaders during a particularly turbulent period in European history. Attention will be paid to international developments and to the two European wars, and the Russian Revolution which had a profound impact on these countries’ freedom to determine their destiny. The study of the inter-war period will include a debate of the reasons for the collapse of democratic institutions, the emergence of patriotic and anti-Semitic movements, economic failures and responses to German and Italian aggression. The establishment, development and the collapse of Soviet domination of the region after the Second World War will be discussed. In addition political, economic and cultural theories, which formed the background to the emergence of the independent states of Eastern and South Eastern Europe, will be considered. The course will develop these themes in the history of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Albania and the Baltic States. Final lectures will concentrate on the transition from Communism to democratic states. The break up of Yugoslavia and the wars in the Balkans will be considered in a separate lecture.

    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Natalia KibitaPicture of Andrea MasonPicture of Anita PrazmowskaPicture of Svetozar RAJAK
HY235 is concerned with providing a comparative political history of the major East Asian countries, China, Japan and Korea, in the period from the Opium War to the 1990s. It begins by looking at the impact of the arrival of Western imperialism in the mid-19th C. and the respective approaches taken by Japan, Korea and China in response to this encroachment. It then deals with the difficulties provoked by modernization and nationalism in the first-half of the 20th C., taking in the rise and fall of Taisho democracy and the drift towards fascism in Japan and the Guomindang’s revolution and state-building and the birth of the Chinese Communist Party in China. The course then concentrates on the aftermath of WWII for East Asia, studying the Chinese Civil War and the emergence of the People’s Republic, the course and legacy of the US occupation of Japan and the formation of the two Koreas. The last part of the course covers the development of the People’s Republic under Mao and Deng, the rise of Japan as an economic superpower and the emergence of South Korea and Taiwan as economic powers.
    Teacher: Picture of Antony BestPicture of Phoebe ChowPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Anton HarderPicture of Pete MillwoodPicture of Chung Yam PoPicture of Svetozar RAJAKPicture of Isami Sawai
HY238 investigates the evolution of both the cold war in Europe and the process of European integration, asking what the linkages were between these parallel developments. The Marshall Plan; the birth of NATO; the Schuman Plan; German Rearmament and the EDC; the Western European Union; the US and Euratom; the other Community – the EEC; JFK’s Grand Design; De Gaulle’s rival vision; the ‘double crisis’ of 1965-6; Harmel, NATO and the WEU; Ostpolitik and the re-emergence of German foreign policy activism; enlargement, EPC, and Kissinger; Schmidt, Giscard and Carter; Euromissiles and Eurosclerosis; Genscher-Colombo and the revival of political Europe; Europe and the end of the cold war – spectator or actor?; a German Europe or a European Germany?; Paris, Berlin & Maastricht.

    Teacher: Picture of Alexandre DabPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Nicholas LudlowPicture of Tommaso MilaniPicture of Marina Perez De Arcos
HY239 is designed to provide students with an introductory overview of the history of the Americas and inter-American relations from 1898 to the present day. Rather than focussing exclusively on U.S. policy towards Latin America, the course explores the international history of Latin America and the United States from a variety of U.S and Latin American perspectives. It also incorporates broader thematic and interpretive questions alongside country specific studies. Among the major themes covered on the course are the concepts of imperialism, neo-colonialism and anti-imperialism, revolution and counter-revolution, nationalism and interventionism, democracy and dictatorship, human rights and repression, development and dependency, the 'war on drugs' and migration.

    Teacher: Picture of William BoothPicture of Anna CantPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Tanya HarmerPicture of Helen ReecePicture of Eline van Ommen
HY240 offers an advanced history of the British Empire that focuses on the metropolitan experience of building, running and then losing an empire, all with apparent little cost to Britain. Reflecting the interest and expertise of the course convenor, the course offers an African focus. It covers the period from the loss of the American colonies to Britain’s post- colonial relations with Africa into the 21st century. Embedded in the context Britain's wider political, social and cultural history, the course will examine the following: the extension of empire during the Victorian era; liberalism and racism; the expansion of colonies of white settlement; the role of missionaries; the impact of empire at home, the running of empire overseas; the role of masculinity and feminism in the making empire;  managing national decline and empire; the contribution of empire to the First and Second World Wars; violence and decolonisation. Case studies include:  Australia and the colonies of white settlement; the Boer War; Mau Mau in Kenya; Idi Amin and Uganda; Ethiopia and Live Aid in the 1980s and Robert Mugabe and New Labour. In essence it has four phases: the phenomenal expansion of empire; the running of empire; imperial decline; empire in the post-colonial Britain.
    Teacher: Picture of Marsha FuPicture of Jack HoganPicture of Heather JonesPicture of Joanna LewisPicture of Christian MelbyDr. Paul MulveyPicture of Robert PowerPicture of David Stevenson

What is history? How and for what purposes do we study the past? What kinds of debates and controversies result from historical study? The purpose of this course is to provide undergraduate students with an introduction to these important issues. We will discuss the history of history from ancient times to the present and how it has changed as an intellectual pursuit over the years. We will think about different types of history – for example, international history, intellectual history, social history, economic history, cultural history or the history of religion – and we will discern their different concerns and priorities. We will analyse some of the most important themes in modern historical study: empires and colonialism, war and conflict, nationalism. We will outline different ideological frameworks for conducting historical research, for example Marxism, postmodernism, and gender studies. We will debate some of the key philosophical questions surrounding historical research: for example, how historians determine facts, and whether or not historical study can ever be truly objective? Finally, we will look at different ways of presenting the past., from traditional history books to museums and TV history. The course is highly recommended for all those students studying history, especially those completing a history-based dissertation.

    Teacher: Picture of Laura AlmagorPicture of Marsha FuPicture of Heather JonesPicture of Raghav KishorePicture of Jeppe MulichPicture of Imaobong Umoren
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